Story and photos by Susan McKee
Driving in Lebanon
Beirut, Lebanon, is definitely 21st century, but take a trip outside this bustling metropolis, and centuries of history come into view.
I headed east on the Beirut-Damascus Road in my rental car to see the most famous ruins in the country: Baalbek. After crossing the mountains (which can take an hour, or two or more -- depending on traffic), it's a half-hour north of the highway, on roads that vary from median-divided thoroughfares to twisting urban streets in an seemingly endless process of being repaved.
If you look at a map, this small town (about 15,000) is located almost in the center of the Fertile Crescent, an area stretching from the Nile River basin in Egypt to the Tigris/Euphrates region of modern day Iraq.
It's here in the still-agricultural Bekaa Valley that the Romans built one of their most magnificent cities in a place that had been a settlement at least since the Phoenician period (around 3000 BCE). On a site once dedicated to Baal, the Romans created a military, agricultural and commercial hub they called Heliopolis: the City of the Sun.
Even in ruins, ancient Baalbek is stunning: it has the largest stone blocks ever used in construction and the tallest columns ever built. In fact, the six remaining columns from the Temple of Jupiter (having withstood earthquakes and warfare) are the iconic sight for the complex. They form the backdrop for the Baalbek International Festival, an extravaganza of music, held in July and August each year.
Because of the layers of occupation, the archaeology of the site tends to confuse the centuries. The Byzantine emperor Theodosius I destroyed the altars of the Great Court in the Sixth Century, and had a basilica built there, using the stones from the Roman temple. In the Seventh, the Arabs converted the complex to a fortress.
Subsequent earthquakes and changing fortunes further obscured the site until "rediscovery" in the late 19th Century (we can thank Kaiser Wilhelm II for the archaeology begun by the Germans at the turn of the 20th Century). Since independence, the Department of Antiquities of Lebanon has been working to preserve what's left.
Baalbek may be a must-see, but the town itself is a bit down at the heels. There are no upscale accommodations or great restaurants.
A better choice when visiting the Bekaa would be to stay at one of two hotels in Chtaura, right on Beirut-Damascus Road where you'd make the turn north for Baalbek. My favorite is the Massabki Hotel, built in the 1920s but completely modernized and with free WiFi). A stone's throw away, behind the McDonald's, is the Chtaura Park Hotel. It's a larger facility that caters not only to the business traveler, but hosts large events (such as weddings).
South of Baalbek is another series of ruins, but not Roman this time. Aanjar is a city build by the Muslim Umayyads in the early 8th Century. Because the site is so close to the Syrian border, I had the place almost to myself -- I counted just three other tourists. It's obvious that the buildings reused stones from earlier structures: there are Hellenic, Roman and Byzantine capitals, columns and other building blocks. The layout of the town is typically Roman, with north-south and east-west streets dividing it into (literally) quarters.
After the Bekaa Valley, I headed south into the Chouf Mountains. Here, both the infrastructure and the scenery changed. This part of Lebanon is alleged to be controlled by Walid Jumblatt, scion of a well-established Druze family and prominent politician.
While the roads I'd been driving on in the Bekaa Valley were mostly in various states of disrepair, the roads in the Chouf were uniformly well-paved, complete with center lines and reflectors. The mountainsides were being replanted with Lebanon's once-ubiquitous cedar trees.
Beiteddine is both a village and a palace in the Chouf Mountains. The palace, built by an emir in the early 19th century, still is used as a part-time residence by the president of Lebanon. Just up the hill is a secondary palace (a gift to the emir's son) that's now been converted into a resort hotel.
Back on the coast, I drove south all the way to Tyre -- a major port city during Phoenician times -- and backtracked to Sidon, best known for its ruins of a sea castle built by the Crusaders in the 13th Century.
In Beirut, you don't really want to have a car, with all the traffic and parking problems posed by a city of two million. That's one of the reasons I rented from Advanced Car Rental. They brought my car to La Maison de Hamra (my first hotel), and picked it up at the Four Seasons Beirut when I returned to the city.
IF YOU GO...
I used the Footprint Lebanon Handbook by Jessica Lee as my primary guidebook. Published in 2011, it's the most current one I could find and the information I used was spot-on. The map I carried was the Lebanon Travel Map by Globetrotter.
Yeah, the U.S. Department of State (and other political entities) have current travel warnings in place for Lebanon. However, I never felt threatened. At each military checkpoint (and, yes, there were at least a dozen, mostly in the Bekaa Valley), the uniformed and heavily armed soldiers would merely look at me and wave me on.
© May 2012 LuxuryWeb Magazine. All rights reserved.